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Hyaluronic Acid

hyaluronic acid

Hyaluronic acid (HA) forms a vital part of the synovial fluid, connective tissue and cartilage. We offer 200 mg a serving of hyaluronic acid in our healthy formula, a fantastic value and more than any product can offer in a pure capsule form. It contains micro-molecules to maintain optimal bioavailability & absorption.

And while the role of synovial fluid is to lubricate and cushion joints as part of normal daily functioning, Hyaluronic acid is a key component of synovial fluid, cartilage, tendons and ligaments essential for maintaining healthy joints.

Hyaluronic acid is present in almost all biological fluids and tissues. HA has multiple important functions in the human body, due to its properties such as bio-compatibility, lubricity and hydrophilicity, it is widely applied in the biomedical, food, health and cosmetic fields.
Higher elasticity increases tissue projection by providing firmness and resistance to muscular and gravitational forces.

Hyaluronic acid, a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and one of the primary components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), is increasingly being utilized in biomedical applications due to both its ability to serve as a blank slate and its biological activity.

In humans, HA is present in all organs and especially abundant in connective tissue. HA reaches higher concentrations in the cartilage tissue in the vitreous humor, the synovial fluid of the joints and in the umbilical cord and is responsible for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Another common feature of HA in eukaryotic organisms is that it confers a smooth aspect to the skin. It has been reported that with aging, HA production decreases, which results in the dehydration and loss of elasticity of the skin, contributing to the appearance of wrinkles.

Among organs, the highest amount of HA was present in connective tissue, the lung, the kidney, and the brain with low amounts present in the liver and blood serum.

In 1934, Karl Meyer and his colleague John Palmer were the first investigators who discovered and isolated HA from the vitreous body of cows' eyes. In the 1950s, the chemical structure of HA was solved by this group. They found that HA is composed of two sugar molecules (D-glucuronic acid (known as uronic acid) and D-N-acetyl glucosamine) and called it hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan).

This name is derived from “hyalos” (the Greek word for glass + uronic acid). Initially, they isolated HA as an acid but it behaved like a salt in physiological conditions (sodium hyaluronate). Several years later in 1942, Ender Balazs patented the first application of HA as a substitute for egg white in bakery products.

The first biomedical application of HA took place in late 1950s when HA was used for a vitreous substitution/replacement during eye surgery. For medical applications, HA was initially isolated from umbilical cords and shortly afterward, from rooster combs. Later on, HA was isolated from other sources and the structural/biological characteristics of this polysaccharide were investigated more deeply in several laboratories.

Hyaluronic acid is a natural polymer biologically synthesized by cells in the body via an enzymatic process. HA production is a unique, highly controlled, and continuous process, HA is produced and secreted by cells including fibroblasts, keratinocytes, or chondrocytes. In tissues such as skin and cartilage where HA comprises a large portion of the tissue mass, the level of HA synthesis is very high.

Studies showed that the concentration of HA in the human body varies from a high concentration of 4 g/kg in umbilical cord, 2–4 g/L in synovial fluid, 0.2 g/kg in dermis, and about 10 mg/L in thoracic lymph, to a low concentration of 0.1–0.01 mg/L in normal serum. In an average human body (70 kg), the total HA content is approximately 15 g. From this 15 g, the largest amount was found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of skin and musculoskeletal tissue.

Depending on the location in the body, most of the HA is catabolized within days. Studies indicated that the normal half-life of HA varied from 1–3 weeks in inert tissues such as cartilage to 1–2 days in the epidermis of skin.

HA is known to have an important role in wound healing and scar formation. Cell proliferation is an important phase of the tissue repair process after damage (e.g. by inflammation). HA is necessary for fibroblast detachment from the extracellular matrix and mitosis. In the early stages of wound repair when increased HA synthesis takes place, cell migration is promoted. The newly deposited ECM rich in HA provides an open, hydrated environment that aids cell migration.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27370777

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